OLYMPUS

ΟΛΥΜΠΟΣ

1. A teacher of Zeus, after whom the god is said to have been called the Olympian. (Diod. iii. 73.)

2. The father of Marsyas. (Apollod. i. 4. § 2.)

3. A disciple of Marsyas, and a celebrated fluteplayer of Phrygia. For a further account of this personage, who is closely connected with the historical Olympus.

4. The father of Cius, from whom Mount Olympus in Mysia was believed to have received its name. (Schol. ad Theocr. xiii. 30.)

5. A son of Heracles by Euboea. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8.)

6. Olympus, the abode of the gods also requires a few words of comment in this place. Mount Olympus is situated in the north-east of Thessaly, and is about 6,000 feet high; on its summit which rises above the clouds of heaven, and is itself cloudless, Hephaestus had built a town with gates, which was inhabited by Zeus and the other gods. (Od. vi. 42, Il. xi. 76.) The palace of Zeus contained an assenmbly-hall, in which met not only the gods of Olympus, but those also who dwelt on the earth or in the sea. (Il. xx. 5.) This celestial mountain must indeed be distinguished from heaven ; but as the gods lived in the city which rose above the clouds and into heaven, they lived at the same time in heaven, and the gates of the celestial city were at the same time regarded as the gates of heaven. (Il. v. 749, &c.)

7. Musicians, Suidas distinguishes three Greek musicians of this names of whom the first is mythical, and the last historical : the second probably owes his existence only to some mistake of Suidas, or the writer whom he copied, since Plutarch who is a much better authority only recognizes two musicians of the name ; both of whom are connected with the auletic music which had its origin in Phrygia. (Plut. de Mus p. 1133, d. e.) The elder Olympus belongs to the mythical genealogy of Mysian and Phrygian flute-players -- Hyagnis, Marsyas, Olympus -- to each of whom the invention of the flute was ascribed, and under whose names we have the mythical representation of the contest between the Phrygian auletic and the Greek citharoedic music : some writers made him the father (instead of son, or disciple, and favourite of Marsyas), but the genealogy given above was that more generally received. Olympus was said to have been a native of Mysia, and to have lived before the Trojan war. The compositions ascribed to him were nomoi eis tous theous, that is, old melodies appropriated to the worship of particular gods, the origin of which was so ancient as to be unknown, like those which were attributed to Olen and Philannion. Olympus not unfrequently appears on works of art, as a boy, sometimes instructed by Marsyas, and sometimes as witnessing and lamenting his fate. (Suid. s. v. ; Plut. de Alus. pp. 1132, e., 1133, e.; Apollod. i. 4. § 2; Hygin. Fab. 165, 273; Ovid, Aletuan. vi. 393, Eleg. iii. 3; MARSYAS.) It may fairly be assumed that this elder and mythical Olympus was invented through some mistake respecting the younger and really historical Olympus.